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The Hans Christian Andersen Center

Abstracts for papers to be given at the IV International HCA conference

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List of abstracts for the IV International HCA conference - Hans Christian Andersen between children's literature and adult literature

Scanavino, Carola;   Plenary lecture 0
Caught between heaven and hell: the two faces of H. C. Andersen

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Christensen, Erik M.;   Plenary lecture 1
The Queen and I
'The Snow-Queen' (1845) has a few years ago been read by H. M. Queen Margrethe II of Denmark on Danish tv, illustrated by a selection of her own so-called découpages (collages of picture clippings), and the Danish Queen has also let this fairy tale cum découpages be published in book form. This lecture will endeavor to characterize the implicit interpretation. - A Radio satire and/or parody of Andersen's 'The Snow-Queen' - brought àjour from an alltogether different angle - was broadcast by the Danish public service radiostation in eight short installments during this year's easterweek. The lecture will endeavor to characterize the quite outspoken interpretation in this case as well. - Andersen's complicity in both cases shall be nailed. - The tv-film (now for sale on dvd) as well as the radio broadcasts (now for sale on cd) will be comfortably accessible at intervals during the conference.
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Kuhn, Hans;   Plenary lecture 2
Andersen's poems for and about children.
Considering Andersen's vast output of poetry (taking up approximately 550 printed pages), the poems specifically dealing with children number no more than about 30. Depending on the respective roles of speaker and child/children, they form three groups: (1) The poet/speaker is an observer describing a scene, and he often quotes the persons observed; (2) The poet/speaker addresses a child in the second person; (3) The poet writes role poems for a child (the speaker is a child). In time, they spread over the whole of Andersen's lterary career, from the middle 1820s to the year of his death, and they express the same range of moods that we find in his tales: the fancyful, the sentimental, the didactic, the religious, the clash between the trivial and the poetic, between innocence and experience. In his early pieces, we often find the touching narratives loved by a 19th century public, but increasingly he moves from the clichés of his time to an unpredictable, puckish humour, which goes well with the way children react to a world which for them is still full of surprises. Many of these poems were occasional pieces written for children in his circle of patrons and friends, or for their parents, and quite a few of them survive to this day as songs.
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Mylius, Johan de; Docent, dr. phil.   Plenary lecture 3
The Child and Death
In general Andersen does not take his stand in a children's perspective on the world or deal specifically with children or their world. He does so now and then, but mostly he aims at the adult world and its experiences. When dealing with children, however, Andersen often includes a perspective very familiar to parents of his period: death. The rate of dying children was still high in the 19. century, and being some kind of realist Andersen focuses on this tragic fact in his fairy tales and stories as well as in his poems. The paper gives an overview of this theme in Andersen's production and examines his interpretation of this utterly meaningless experience so well known to his readers.
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Malmkjær, Kirsten; Prof.   Plenary lecture 4
The Language that Stayed at Home: Hans Christian Andersen's way with words.
As Hjørnager Pedersen (2004: 47) remarks, 'the simple, childlike and original Andersen did perhaps travel around the globe, but ... his art, in so far as it depended on language, did not always go with him'. Comparatively little work has been done on the nature of Andersen's linguistic artistry. This is detrimental to his reputation abroad (great though this is) and to translations of his work, the latter obviously having a strong influence on the former.

I would like to present preliminary findings of a project in which I build on work by e.g Jensen (1929), Møllehave (1985) and Brostrøm and Lund (1991), as well as my own work in this area (Malmkjær 1991; 1993; 1995a and b; 1996; 1997; 2003; 2004), to provide a thorough stylistic analysis of Andersen's language, not only in the world famous stories, but also in other genres.
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Stecher-Hansen, Marianne; Associate Professor, Grad   Plenary lecture 5
From Romantic to Modernist Metatexts: Commemorating Andersen and the Self-Referential Text
On the occasion of the bicentennial celebration of Hans Christian Andersen's birth, this paper explores how the author formulates textual 'commemorations' of his own literary legacy and artistic immortality. An investigation of selected tales from Andersen's mid- and late career demonstrates how he moves from Romantic literary conventions toward a 'Modernist' aesthetic, particularly in self-referential and experimental tales such as 'Flippperne' (The Collar, 1848), 'En Rose fra Homers Grav' (A Rose from Homer's Grave, 1842), 'Den Stumme Bog (The Silent Album), 'Pebersvendens Hathue' (The Pepperman's Nightcap, 1858) and 'Tante Tandpine' (Auntie Toothache, 1872). The paper also touches on Andersen's effort to formulate a new literary aesthetic in 'Det nye Aarhundredes Musa' (The Muse of the New Century, 1861), a decade before Georg Brandes initiated the Modern Breakthrough. Finally, the analysis of texts will be contextualized by observations from the most recent biographic 'commemorations' of Andersen's life: Jackie Wullschlager, The Life of a Storyteller (2000) and Jens Andersen, Andersen (2003).
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Draga-Alexandru, Maria Sabina;   Plenary lecture 6
'Out of a Swan's Egg' Metamorphosis in H. C. Andersen's Tales and 'The Fairy Tale of My Life'
'It does not matter in the least being born in a duckyard, if
only you come out of a swan's egg.' (H. C. Andersen, 'The Ugly Duckling')

'Now I am ready to tell you how bodies are changed/ Into
different bodies.' (Ovid, 'Metamorphoses', trans. Ted Hughes)

Metamorphosis is, in classical mythology, a change in the body. It is a change for the worse when it happens as a result of God's/the gods' revenge on someone as punishment for hybris, or for the better, following initiation through suffering and purification. In Andersen's fairy tales both patterns occur. They have an educative function within the world of children's values. In 'The Fairy Tale of My Life' these values are used as guidemarks along Andersen's path throughout his life as various experiences change him from 'the ugly duckling' into the swan. Travelling and performance ­ changing location and disguise ­contribute to various temporary and permanent forms of metamorphosis in the writer's identity formation.
This paper will study the concept of metamorphosis in Andersen's writing in a double perspective. One dimension will be mythical, as proposed by Ovid and Marina Warner. The other will be contemporary, in an attempt to reposition Andersen's view of metamorphosis within the frame of nomadic understandings of the self as proposed by Deleuze and Guattari on the one hand and Rosi Braidotti on the other. I would like to suggest that in the contemporary world, increasingly informed by the experience of globalisation, where time and space are becoming more compact, Andersen's own metamorphosis through travelling (or 'flying') can be reread as a foreshadowing of the contemporary model of the citizen of the world.

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Korovin, Andrey V.; Ph.D, Associate professor   Plenary lecture 7
Chronotope of Andersen's Fairy Tales and Stories
It is not an exaggeration to say that the literary fairy tale ('eventyr') as a genre was definitively formed by H.C. Andersen. While he did not create the genre, he wrote the most original examples of this new literary form, and he single-handedly established the literary fairy tale as separate from folklore and as a distinct genre of short prose. The problem for analysis is
that Andersen not only created the genre of the literary fairy tale
('eventyr'), he also destroyed it when he created another new genre form - 'historie' (story, tale). 'Historie' is generically connected to the fairy tale but has a number of essential differences from it, the main one being specific genre polyphony, meaning that 'historie' can adopt the genre features of many other literary forms-as a fairy tale, a Christmas story, a novel, a ballad, a short story, a novella, etc. At the same time, 'historie' is opposed to all these genres. 'Historie' is a term that is not used extensively by many scholars as it is normal to use the name 'eventyr' (fairy tale) for all of Andersen's tales. But the fact is that his late
texts definitely are not fairy tales. Because Andersen's later tales have been included in the fairy tale genre, then, a certain instability has arisen in the genre definition. The causes of this similar instability can be found in the specific of space and time of the literary fairy tale. Mikhail Bakhtin used the term chronotope to show the syncretism of space and time in a literary text. The chronotope seems to be one of the most important characteristics of a text.
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Lotz, Martin; Psychiatrist, Psychoanaly   Plenary lecture 8
The Shepherdess and the Chimney Sweep in the light of psychoanalytic thinking
The story of the Shepherdess and the Chimney Sweep has many references to Andersens biography. Why did he write the story and what did it mean to him? As I am going to draw upon his autobiographies, his letters and his diary, I am moving outside the sphere of literary hermeneutics. My interest as a psychoanalyst is to make an approach to the understanding of the psychology of the author.
I shall touch upon the recent redefining of his sexuality by some biographers. The idea is to settle with simplistic expositions of Andersen as either homosexual or heterosexual, and to give a sketch of him as a more complicated, ambiguous man. In Andersen's psychology there was a field of conflicts between both sexual and aggressive impulses and counterworking inhibiting and censuring functions. There is reason to emphasise that also specifically repressed narcissistic vulnerability and aggressive sedition were influential factors. These tensions produced an ever present amount of pathological anxiety accompanied by a number of symptoms. However, in the best of his works he was successfully sublimating his personal conflicts into universally valid art.
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Andersen, Hans Christian;   Workshop I
Hans Christian Andersen as a Tourist?
In an age - our own - of 'Rough' Guides and 'Lonely Planet' Guides, the debate continues: was Andersen a 'tourist' or a 'traveller'? Is being one better than being the other? Did it make any difference to him and should it make any difference to us?

The answer lies in Andersen's travel notes and travel descriptions where we see him articulate his relationship with 'the other', with the foreign worlds he was able to visit, experience, interpret and present to his Danish readership in print. This paper investigates Andersen's literary conquest of the world, with particular emphasis on his two journeys to England and Scotland in 1847 and 1857.
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Hees, Annelies van;   Workshop I
HCA was no hypochondriac: he was ill
In my paper I will enlist all the illnesses, including hypochondria, that Andersen himself or others thought he might have suffered from. I will also try and find a pattern in the various complaints he had troughout his lifetime, as well as a pattern in the witness reports of the fysical impressions he made on people.
Medical diagnosis is of course a field of medical science, but it has certain features in common with literary studies, especially when the diagnosis is based on texts only, as is inevitable when the patient is long dead. In such a case the symptoms have changed into texts and might be interpreted as texts. In my paper I will try to show what disease Hans Christian Andersen suffered from throughout his life, a diagnosis and that will show the reality behind his complaints.
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Hintz, Nina; ph.d.studerende   Workshop I
Hans Christian Andersen's perception of and approach towards the Orient
Hans Christian Andersen's perception of and approach towards the Orient - his unique position in the European discourse on Orientalism in the postcolonial 19th century.
(Aspect: adult literature - fields of studies: alterity, culture sciences, European culture history, orientalism, literature)
The focus is on Andersen's image, analysis of, and attitude towards the Orient, as well as his first hand experience and his interaction described in his travel-book 'En Digters Basar', his diary and correspondences. He depicts the Orient as a culture potentially superior to European culture. His opinion contradicts other contemporary European writers and public opinion: that the orient was a less civilized and inferior culture. Andersen had a political message when exaggerating the positive sides of the orient, and this will be shown through exposes of narrative structures, techniques, and strategies e.g. 'poeticize the truth'. Andersen's depiction of the orient is purposeful, contrasting, and insightful.
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Jensen, Lars Bo; Ph.D-studerende   Workshop I
Children and tunings in Hans Christian Andersen's travel books
Based on a concept of tunings (moods), according to which both the properties and the description of a tuning is intimately related to where it takes place, it shall be discovered, how Andersen makes use of children as a motif in his travelogues. Are children always situated in descriptions and tunings, that are 'childish' - and not 'adult', i.e. for example ironic, sarcastic, ambiguous, erotic or sinister? The investigation leads in the direction of defining what 'childishness' is in the context of tunings/moods and narration, and how it may be deployed in texts, which are not expectedly 'told to the children'.
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Jørgensen, Aage;   Workshop I
Hans Christian Andersen between tradition and modernity, with special reference to the fairy-tale Dryaden (The Dryad)
For Hans Christian Andersen, the physicist H. C. qrsted ­
who discovered electromagnetism in 1820 and thereby laid
the foundation for the technical progress of the century ­
was a kind of guarantor that an underlying 'spirit' would
also leave its mark on the modern period. That is how
Andersen saw the way things were developing when he was a
guest at the home of M. Drewsen, whose paper factory in the
newly founded city of Silkeborg in mid Jutland, struck him
as a true Wirtschaftswunder. In the fairy tale Great
Grandfather, the main character discovers the positive
qualities of modernity and donates money for a monument to
qrsted. But in Thousands of Years from Now, what is
emphasized is the superficial and a lack of spirituality ­
'America's young inhabitants' travel the full breadth of
the traditional culture in just a week. The author's
ambivalence culminates in The Dryad, A Fairy Tale from the
World's Fair in Paris 1867. The wood nymph is drawn from
her natural setting into the big city, but must pay for
this with her life. Here the urban is associated with the
unnatural, with restlessness, rootlessness, moral decay,
sinful lust, etc., and ultimately with godlessness.
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Kofoed, Lone Funch; cand.mag.   Workshop I
Shadow Pictures - Truth or tale
In H.C. Andersen's early travelogue 'Skyggebilleder af en Reise til Harzen, det sachsiske Schweitz etc. etc., i Sommeren 1831' he challenges his readers to join him on a trip where reality and fantasy are blended into a shadowy picture. The story of the journey is the main tread, but the thoughts and memories, the dreams and fantasies of the poet play a no less important role in the narrator's experience of the journey as well as the reader's experience of the travelogue. In my paper I focus on Andersen's stylistic method as it shows in this travelogue. With examples from the text I illustrate the decisions on narrative style, that Andersen has made in order to make his readers perceive the story as a documentary description of an authentic journey - in a word: as the truth. And I examine Andersen's storytelling with specific emphasis on the narrator's role in painting a picture of a true story, and I try to show how the narrator in different ways deceives his own good intentions - holding back the storyline and staging himself as a poet, a storyteller or a commentary on art, theatre, music and even on his own story.
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Baran, Zbigniew; ph.d.   Workshop II
Encyclopaedic Portraits of HCA
I'd like to show the general knowledge about HCA in today Poland. A review of contents of encyclopaedic and lexicographic entries in cotemporary Polish encyclopaedias and lexicons ought to answer the question.'What may Poles learn about Andersen during reading of Polish encyclopaedias and lexicons edited for the last 25 yars in Poland'.
Polish encyclopaedias and lexicons edited for the last 25 years in Poland present Danish poet and children's writer with perfuncuoriness, and it seems that Andersen, the greatest of European literary fairy tales-writeers, has not entered as 'a man of his time (19thc.) and space (Europe) into consciousness of contemporary Poles for good.
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Gai·iūnas, Silvestras; Dr.   Workshop II
The Motive of Mermaid in the Baltic Cultures (the modifications of H. C. Andersen's tradition)
H. C. Andersen's fairy-tale 'The Mermaid' ('Den lille Havfrue') most often became a spring of artistic impulses in the Lithuanian and Latvian literatures of XX century, first of all in the works of romanticists and postromanticists. Latvian neoromanticist Karlis Skalbe in fairy-tale 'Princess of the Sea' shows human moral perfection.
Latvian poet Leons Briedis created a poem 'The Mermaid', in which is enthroned the power of love. The one of most interesting interpretations of H. C. Andersen's 'The Mermaid' in the near past - the water ballet 'The Mermaid' by Latvian choreographer Agris Danileviius: grand children dance collective perform this ballet in the water.
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Isaeva, Elisaveta; Professor   Workshop II
Evgeny Shwartz and H. C. Andersen
The theme I should like to present, is The research of the plays of the renown Russian writer Evgeny Shwartz (1896-1958), greatly influenced by H.C. Andersen. Some of his theatre fairy-tales could be considered modern interpretations of Andersen's plots. Attention is paid to the comparision between X1X-th and XX-th centuries visions of the eternal conflict Good - Evil. In Shwartz's versions this conflict is associated with the epochal key events. These problems could be analyzed on both aspects of Shwartz's production - for children and adults - or separately in connection with his play for children - The Snow Queen' or those for adults - The Shadow'
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Minovska- Devedzhieva, Rossitsa; dir.   Workshop II
Hans Christian Andersen in Puppet Theatre
Puppet theatre art has a long-standing tradition in Bulgaria, being recognized as one of the most popular ways to acquaint children with world drama and literature standards, both classical and modern. The proposed topic would allow me to share my personal experience and observations on the interpretation of Andersen's tales through the means of puppet theatre, as well as on their effect on the children's audience. More specifically, I plan to focus on two titles which have been present in the repertoire of the Rousse Puppet Theatre for different periods: The Ugly Duckling, and The Princess and the Pea.
Indeed, two centuries after his birth, the spirit of this great writer is still alive, and his deeply humane wisdom has never ceased to touch children's hearts. The magic of puppet theatre is a powerful mediator in the process, for the puppet stage is a place where miracles really happen, an intersection of literature, living word, music and dance which provides vast opportunities for the cultivation of both traditional and modern human values.

Rossitsa Minovska-Devedzhieva
artistic and administrative director of
the Rousse Puppet Theatre, Rousse, Bulgaria
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Oxfeldt, Elisabeth; dansk lektor   Workshop II
Life and Death in The Little Mermaid: Three Contemporary Adaptations of Hans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tale
This paper compares film adaptations of The Little Mermaid across three continents: the U.S., Australia and Europe. Thematically it focuses on how the various films treat Andersen's motif of life and death to accommodate not only child viewers, but also contemporary ideologies. As such, the films represent a modern, a postmodern and a late modern view of the turn of the twentieth century. Formally, the article investigates how the style of each film supports its overall message - as the productions range from low- to high budget, and from limited to full animation.
The conference paper will be a power-point presentation, illustrating the points made with clips from the animation films.
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Reid-Walsh, Jacqui; lecturer   Workshop II
Everything in the picture book was alive
'Everything in the picture book was alive': Hans Christian Andersen's strategy of textual animation in his fairy tales and the interactive child reader.

A paper proposal presented to the conference 'Hans Christian Andersen between Children's literature and Adult literature.' The Fourth International Hans Christian Andersen Conference. the Hans Christian Andersen Center at the University of Southern Denmark, Odense, August 1-5, 2005

Jacqueline Reid-Walsh Bishop's University, Lennoxville Quebec Canada

Lois Kutnets has examined Andersen's innovation in bringing to children's literature the category of the living toy but the paper toy has not been distinguished from the material artifact. This paper analyzes fairy tales like 'Little Ida's Flowers,' 'The Wild Swans,' 'The Steadfast Tin Soldier' and 'The Shepherdess and the Chimney Sweep' that evoke an animated world analogous to the interactivity of engaging with moveable books like harlequinades, paper dolls books and toy theatres. Historical and cultural context will consist of discussion of Andersen's fascination with the toy theatre as a child, his continued interest with pantomime theatre throughout this life, and his construction of paper cut-outs which he referred to as 'fairy tales.' The approach of children's media theory is based upon my research into the history of mediated forms of interactivity.
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Bliudzius, Arunas; Sc.secr.   Workshop III
Publishing of H.C.Andersen's Tales in Lithuanian and Latvian
Comparative Analysis based on Translations' situation'

The traditions of H.C.Andersen's translations during the 20th century were different in both Baltic states and such situation remained even afer rebuilding of national independence after 1990 year. The main differences concern several basic points dealing with principles of translation:
1) relation with original language (in Latvia mostly translations are from Danish, in Lithuania -from German),
2) relation with publishers (in Latvia H.C.Andersen is published in specialized publishing houses, in Lithuania it depends on many indirect factors),
3) relation between text and illustrations (in Latvia proportions between textual and ilustrative areas depend from several main circumstances, in Lithuania such proportions not dealing with that), 4) relation with selection of tales (in Latvia there are no specific selective factors, in Lithuania many of H.C.Andersen books have that selective orientation).
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Bostrup, Lise; eks. lektor   Workshop III
Offering Roses to a Cow? The English and the Danish Shadow of Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen published 1847 a story about a wise and good-hearted learned man from the Nordic countries and his dark, materialistic and diabolic shadow. The Shadow (Skyggen) belongs in Denmark to the most popular and interpreted stories. Hans Brix, Johan de Mylius, Eigil Nyborg, Uffe Hansen, Klaus P. Mortensen and Johannes Møllehave have all in different excellent works opened new perspective for the interpretation of the story - but outside the Danish borders has this story never met the same interest. The interpretations are few, and where English and American booksellers can show several versions of The Little Mermaid, The Emperor's New Clothes and The Ugly Duckling in illustrated and not-illustated, adapted and not-adapted editions, English versions of 'Skyggen' has only found their way to the big collections of Hans Christian Andersens Fairy Tales.

One of the reasons for this misproportion in the reception is in my point of view, that Hans Christian Andersen in The Shadow creates a serious of challenges for the English translator. Henry William Dulcken, mrs. Paul, Jean Hersholt, R.P. Keigwin, Reginald Spink, Erik Christian Haugaard, Dina Crone/Jeffrey Frank, Tiina Nunnally and others have during the time all delt with the problems of Andersens use of the homonyms virkelig, rigtig and sand, his use of the Danish jo and ja, the problems of De and du, the picture of offering roses to a cow and the politican uncorrect mentioned of the sunburned 'negroes'.

Via a critical - and I hope amusing - comparison of the different translations, I will open up for a new discussion of the quality of the translations of Andersen into English.
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Dumitrescu, Anca; prof.dr.   Workshop III
H.C. Andersen and His First Romanian Translators
This paper aims at providing significant insights into the way in which H. C. Andersen's literary work started to be introduced by translations in the mid-19th century Romania, as well as in other regions inhabited by Romanians .References will be made to our poet G.Asachi, who made the first translations from Andersen's work, using the French versions. Thus, the poem 'The March Violet' happened to be issued in 1841, the year when the great Danish writer could see the Wallachian people and landscape during his trip on the Danube in the southern Romania. Our historical contrastive research will briefly outline the post -1874 better period for the access of Andersen's work into the Romanian space, as the literary and daily press started eagerly to translate the Danish writer's fairy tales from French, in the old Romania or from German in Transylvania.

The last part of this paper is focused on Dumitru Stancescu, who in the 19th century had the most important quantitative and qualitative contribution to providing the Romanian readers with a significant range of Andersen's fairy tales and stories, so skilfully translated that even today, after more than one century, they can compete with other more recent Romanian translations of the same texts.

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Holmqvist, Ivo; Prof.   Workshop III
'Prenez garde aux enfants' ­ Swedish versions and varieties of Hans Christian Andersen´s Eventyr
In an 1851 letter to his Swedish publisher Albert Bonnier, Hans Christian Andersen expressed his belief that translations between two as closely related languages as Danish and Swedish are - or ought to be - unnecessary, 'helst ønsker[jeg] at Bøger ikke oversættes, mellem os Naboer.' This was, of course, wishful thinking: translations and renderings of his tales have abounded also on the Swedish market. A number of prominent writers and critics have tackled the task, among them August Strindberg, Fredrik Böök, Erik Asklund, Åke Holmberg and Bengt Anderberg.
Some of them were successful in faithfully preserving Andersen´s original 'double talk' to children and to adults, others less so. In this paper, I propose to show how Andersen´s texts have been translated, transformed and
in some cases adapted, for linguistic as well as social and historical reasons, reflecting their moving across th! e border into a neighbouring country, and into modern times.
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Kos, Silvana Orel; Dr.   Workshop III
'Look in the passport!' said the man. 'I am myself!' - The Socialist Cloak of the Slovene Andersen.
So far some 110 Andersen fairy tales and stories have been translated into the Slovene language. The first Slovene rendering of Andersen fairy tales was two adaptions published in a youth periodical in 1850. Exactly one hundred years later, 1950 marks the beginning of a very prolific translational decade in post-war Slovenia.
The translations were done by Rudolf Kresal, who, incidentally, was born and died exactly 100 years after Hans Christian Andersen. With 80 different titles Rudolf Kresal is the most productive Slovene translator of Andersen's fairy tales and stories ever. His translations from the 1950's dominated the bookshelves and young readers' minds for almost 50 years.
The paper analyses the translational strategies that were applied in the past to get Andersen across Slovenia's literary border. It addresses the ideological and hence interpretational aspects of Andersen's fairy tales and stories in the Slovene language first published in the early 1950's, when Slovenia was a flourishing socialist republic in former Yugoslavia. It shows that Kresal and the editorial board at the leading Slovene publishing house pursued a specific translational policy that tried or was forced to meet the needs and demands of the then political and, quite tellingly, educational systems.
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Müürsepp, Mare; PhD   Workshop III
H. C. Andersen fairy tales for Estonian readers
The aim of the paper is to give an overview about publication of Andersen's fairy tales in Estonian, introducing the most significant translators and illustrators and analyzing the tendencies of publication process.
The first translator of HCA fairy tales was the beginner of Estonian national poetry Lydia Koidula ('Stoppenaalen', in 1866). There have been certain tendencies in translation of HCA fairy tales: translation from German (during 19th and in the beginning of 20th century), from Russian (during Soviet period) and from Danish original (beginning from 1933 Agnes Antik and from 1964 Henrik Sepamaa).
If during the 19th century the fairy tales were published in magazines, then the first collection of HCA works was completed in Estonian in 1897, then the 2nd, enlarged edition in 1906. The collections published in 1913 (14 stories, translated by A. Haava) and in 1928 (25 stories, translated by H. Raudsepp) included also a longer foreword introducing the life and work of H. C. Andersen. Today 156 fairy tales are published in two volumes (1987, 1996).
The collection of Estonian illustrators works on Andersen's motifs, belonging to the Estonian National Library will be introduced.
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Nagashima, Yoichi;   Workshop III
Adults only - A new translation of H.C. Andersen's works into Japanese

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Pedersen, Viggo Hjørnager; Lektor, dr. phil.   Workshop III
'Out in the world, thoughts come'
In the conclusion of my dissertation Ugly Ducklings? (2004) I suggested as a possible field for further investigations of Andersen's translations 'Studies of idiomaticity in translated texts. A working hypothesis would be that if translated texts are generally less highly regarded than their originals, a reason could be that they are less idiomatic ... .'
As a beginning, I have now looked at idioms and half-idioms in a number of tales, and compared them with Dulcken's late 19th-century translation, and in some cases also with some more recent translations. My results so far confirm my suspicion that one of the great stumbling blocks for translators - and certainly for Dulcken - is interference from the source language(s), in this case Danish and/or German.
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Sezer, Sarap; MA   Workshop III
Turkish Translations of Andersen's Fairy Tales

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Zharov, Boris; Prof   Workshop III
Dynamism in Perception of Hans Christian Andersen in S-t Petersburg, one of the most H.C.Andersenous cities of the world
Dynamism in Perception of Hans Christian Andersen in S-t Petersburg, one of the most H.C.Andersenous cities of the world (XIX-XXIth centuries)
Happenings in our constantly changing world are reflecting various sides of HCA's creativity. By the middle of the XIXth century Russia had already shown its interest in HCA. St. Petersburg happened to be the first as it was 'the window towards Europe'. The novel 'The Improvisator' and some fairy tales were translated from German. A real revolution took place when Peter & Anna Hansen (Ganzen in Russia) translated from Danish and published 4 volumes of his works. These translations lay the foundation of all the latest publications in Russian as well as other languages spoken in Russia and some other countries. The further 150 yeas saw millions of items.

HCA's fairy tales are easily performed on stages and it was done perfectly during the XXth century. In St. Petersburg there were shown 32 performances in the 1990's: 14 dramas, 7 operas, 4 ballets and 7 puppy ones. A few films were made in S-t Petersburg too. The best artists illustrated his books. At the XXth century begins a scientific study of HCA's works (Ludmila Braude). In 1996, 2000 and 2005 there were held some scientific HCA-conferences.

Nowadays every bookshop has a lot of fairy tales of different size and shape. Librarians can essure their great popularity. In every home where HCA's fairy tales are read, in every theatre where they are staged grateful heats of both grown-ups and children beat in unison with the heart of the great Danish poet.



Boris Zharov





Happenings in our constantly changing world are reflecting various sides of HCA's creativity. By the middle of the XIXth century Russia had already shown its interest in HCA. St. Petersburg happened to be the first as it was 'the window towards Europe'. The novel 'The Improvisator' and some fairy tales were translated from German. A real revolution took place when Peter & Anna Hansen (Ganzen in Russia) translated from Danish and published 4 volumes of his works. These translations lay the foundation of all the latest publications in Russian as well as other languages spoken in Russia and some other countries. The further 150 yeas saw millions of items.

HCA's fairy tales are easily performed on stages and it was done perfectly during the XX century. In St. Petersburg there were shown 32 performances in the 1990's: 14 dramas, 7 operas, 4 ballets and 7 puppy ones. A few films were made in S-t Petersburg too. The best artists illustrated his books. At the XX century begins a scientific study of HCA's works (Ludmila Braude). In 1996, 2000 and 2005 there were held some scientific HCA-conferences.

Nowadays every bookshop has o lot of fairy tales of different size and shape. Librarians can essure their great popularity. In every home where HCA's fairy tales are read, in every theatre where they are staged grateful heats of both grown-ups and children beat in unison with the heart of the great Danish poet.
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Øster, Anette; forskningsassistent   Workshop III
Andersen in translation
In my paper I will show that not only a translator's view of the child, but also a translator's awareness of genre play a part in the renderings of Andersen's fairy tales.
In short comparative readings of a number of Andersen's fairy tales, in their original form and in translation reveal the following in the English versions: there are far fewer details; abstractions are concretised; there are more paragraphs; and sentences are shorter. In general, the English version tends to be simpler and more specific in its expression, less descriptive and abstract. Whereas the Danish text leaves it up to the reader to draw various conclusions and make their own judgements, the English text gives a helping hand. Indirect speech is also often changed into direct speech in the translations and there are many examples of additions to the text. In many of the translations external action is prioritised over other narrative qualities. Furthermore it seems like the fairy tales have been adapted to fit the traditional folk tale mould so that they fulfil genre expectations. Several of the English fairy tales open with the conventional 'Once upon a time', a phrase which Andersen himself very rarely used.
It is my thesis that many of the changes undertaken and differences from the original texts are a result of the translator's conflicting view of the child reader and understanding of the writer's genre. In this paper I would like to demonstrate how Andersen's fairy tales in translation are much closer to the folk tale in their mode of expression than was the case with the original stories and how traditional thinking about genres and about what children's literature can and should do may have determined this transformation.
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Davidsen, Mogens;   Workshop IV
'Childishness' as Poetic Strategy
The formal character of many of HCA's texts anticipates a part of the modernistic development of the 20th century which can bee seen as an artistic attempt to answer the nature of 'reality'.
In early modernism, features such as lack ofperspective, fragmentary composition, grammatical parataxis and disfiguration are often characterized as expressions of 'primitivism' or 'naivism'; labes that indicate a certain 'childishness' in art and literature.
The lecture will investigate the connections between the formal childishness of Andersen and the orientation of early modernism, and suggest that Andersen's experience of reality is one of 'neagtive capability' as John Keats names a vital mental capacity of the artist.
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Ivanauskaité- Gustaitiene, Asta;   Workshop IV
The guilt of a child/grown up and justification in the prose by Hans Christian Andersen
The theoretical basis of the presentation is mainly the conception of the liberated imagination by Norwegian scholar Nils Magnar Grendstad (1930-1933). This conception helps to reveal the methods, the use of which allowed Andersen to realize the biblical 'to investigate hearts' principles. This presentation is mainly based on the discussion of Andersen's work 'Pictures Book Without Pictures'
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Jensen, Inger Lise;   Workshop IV
Dream and reality - ' The Little Match Girl' expressed through a social psychological view
I want to see at the 'The Little Match Girl' through a social psychological view. I will take in both the social and the literary contemporary time in connexion with an analysis of the text. Further I will make use of different illustrations of 'The Little Match Girl', for example some of which are made by children.

I will use the illustrations for a critical examination to elucidation of the questions whether Hans Christian Andersen was writing for the children and whether the story has something to say children today.

Finally I will examine in which way 'The Little Match Girl' has been used through the times for example as Christmas cards, illustrations for calendars, logos for institutions etc. In the examination I will look at the commercial use as well as at a more idealistic use.

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Jones, Eric;   Workshop IV
H.C. Andersen's flair to communicate basic social skills naturally and imperceptibly to national and international readers.
Whether in a formal or infornal educational environment, every person acquires basic social skills to assert him or herself in the world. These tools are essential to promote personal development and growth in the political, educational and socio-economic world.


Without adoppting the stance of a parent, teacher or pedagogue H.C.Andersen, in addition to his wonderful ability to make his readers believe in the make-believe, instills an awareness of the natural use of social skills which forms an integral part of human existence, irrespective of their educational or world citizen status. This phenomena is evident in a number of Andersen's Tales i.e. 'The Swineherd'; 'The Tinder-Box'; 'It's Absolutely True'; 'Simple Simon' to name but a few.


Throughout his productive genre of Tales for young and old. H.C, Andersen displays the observation and application of the Principles of Common courtesy in interpersonal communication between various characters under various circumstances and in believable human situations.


This presentation hopes to highlight the above-mentioned features of H.C. Andersen's rich and inspiring genre of educative Tales.
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Lundskær-Nielsen, Tom; Dr., Senior Lecturer   Workshop IV
Hans Christian Andersen is famous for using language aimed at children
In his fairy tales, Hans Christian Andersen is famous for using language that has a special appeal to children. This may be seen both in the vocabulary and in the syntax of some of the tales. On the other hand, there are clear differences between the fairly cheerful early tales 'told for children' and the much darker and more sardonic late tales. This paper aims to explore the language of a representative number of early and late tales, with a view to determining to what extent they were written mainly or partly, if at all, with children in mind as readers and/or listeners. Such an analysis is likely to show, more reliably than overt statements can do, the nature of the intended readership for particular Andersen texts and even for whole periods of his writing career.
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Massengale, James;   Workshop IV
Little Gerda's Moratoria
--
about puberty or maturation or taking leave of childhood.
I would sincerely appreciate it if you and your team could wedge me in somewhere in the HC Andersen Conference. I would not require plenary space, but could happily contribute a 20-minute talk in a section concerning puberty or maturation or taking leave of childhood or whatever. I could produce a 20-minute paper on the subject tentatively titled 'Little Gerda's Moratoria'--I would like to revisit some of those Snow Queen issues so bitterly criticized by Lederer and considered 'udenfor eventyrets ramme' by Niels Kofoed

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Mhlakaza, Vincent A.;   Workshop IV
Hans Christian Andersen in Southern Africa

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Möller-Christensen, Ivy York; Dr., ph.d.   Workshop IV
A review of the principles of literary methods and didactics which have decided the selection of HCA-texts for upper secondary school
The publication of an anthology of texts by Hans Christian Andersen in connection with a detailed introduction aimed at the upper secondary school and the colleges of education in Denmark provides the background for a review of the principles of literary methods and didactics which have decided the selection of these texts. It is to be considered in which way Hans Christian Andersen can form a weighty part of a canon and his works constitute a permanent part of the literary curriculum for contemporary youth.
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Olsen, Inger M.;   Workshop IV
Oprørske og halsstarrige piger i H. C. Andersens eventyr
En gennemgang af nogle af pigerskikkelserne i H. C. Andersens eventyr.

I H. C. Andersens eventyr forekommer en del piger lige fra søde, for eksempel Gerda i 'Snedronningen', til uartige men med hjertet på rette sted, for eksempel røverpigen i samme eventyr. En del af pigerne er oprørske og halsstarrige. Tit må de betale for deres holdning, men til tider er det deres adfærd, der står sig. Denne afhandling vil analysere udvalgte eventyr og efterforske, hvorledes digteren fremstillede pigerne. En af H. C. Andersens store fortjenester var jo netop at få børnene, også pigerne, ind i litteraturen.
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Rasmussen, Inge Lise Pin;   Workshop IV
The Snow Queen by Hans Christian Andersen. Existential Philosophy and Animated Cartoon.
The best of Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tales manage to enthrall children and adults alike. One such example is The Snow Queen. The sublimely-poetic universe created in this fairy tale may be interpreted both as an animated cartoon and a highly-intellectual illustration of existential philosophy such as was proposed by the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard.

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Weinreich, Torben; professor   Workshop IV
Hans Christian Andersen - writing for children?
When Hans Christian Andersen in 1835 published his first four fairy tales in a humble booklet, they had the superior title Fairy Tales told for Children at the frontpage. Until 1842 and five booklets later his fairy tales were in the same way 'told for children'. Nevertheless it is frequently discussed if Andersen wrote his 156 fairy tales for children - or at least some of the fairy tales, and at least until 1842.
The general meta-theorethical question is: - What is the imperative condition or qualification if we want to designate a litterary work as children´s literature?
And the more specific question is: Was Andersen himself - especially in 1835-42 - aware of the requirements for writing for children?
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Askgaard, Ejnar; M.A.   Workshop V
On Andersen's 'The Snow Queen'
Due to the fact that that we know so much about Hans Christian Andersen's thoughts and whereabouts it has been somewhat easy – and tempting – to trace and find patterns in his fairy tales that are closely linked to experiences and events of the author's life. Such studies are very interesting – alas they only reveal minor aspects in Andersen's artistic manoeuvres. By interpretation of the fairy tale 'The Snow Queen' I will try to show how pieces of recollection, education and religion through Andersen's modern language and narrative – as in the puzzle of the ice cold reason – art are put into a masterpiece of a fairy tale.
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Gancheva, Vera;   Workshop V
From New Platonism to New Age - Ways of Understanding And Interpreting H.C. Andersen's Spirituality
The new Platonism is an old philosophical system from which originated a specific Weltanschauung, a world-view and sensitivity aimed at disclosing and maintaining the correspondences, the links between ideas, phenomena and human beings. This wholistic concept of the world and the man, typical for the Romanticism, has been expressed by many of its most eminent representatives in Europe and in Denmark (among others) by H.C. Oersted, a physicist but also well known as a romantic philosopher, through his lectures on cosmology and the spirit of nature. It is a fact that H.C. Andersen has been deeply influenced by Oersted's book 'The spirit of nature' (1850) and by the idealistic movement called in Denmark organismetanken, directed to co-ordination of everything in the existence. H.C. Andersen created an extremely original poetics based on the idea of en faelles aand (a common spirit) and in my paper I shall try to explain why its magic works even today, in our highly materialistic and computerized world and to explore the opportunities provided probably by the New Age movement, neither science, nor religion or philosophy (just like organismetanken in 19th century) to widen the narrow proportions of our ordinary life and to stimulate a new awareness, a transformative, creative spirit necessary for understanding and interpreting Andersen's spiritual message and rich symbolism.
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Johansen, Ib;   Workshop V
Trivializing Trauma(s). Carnivalesque-grotesque Elements in Andersen's
In my paper I intend to focus on carnivalesque-grotesque elements
in Hans Christian Andersen's 'The Happy Family', 'Heartache', and 'The Goblin and the Grocer' - all of them stories where a Biedermeyer world is a submitted to a carnivalistic de-construction, i.e. where both would-be pastoral and idyllic plot-elements undergo an out-and-out 'uncrowning' (to adopt one of the Russian scholar Mikhail Bakhtin's key-terms in Rabelais and His World, 1968). In 'The Happy Family' the big white snails inhabiting the neighbourhood of 'a certain old manor house' find the highest degree of happiness in being boiled and laid on a silver dish, but such age-old, well-established (cultural, culinary) customs have gradually died out, and instead the world of the snails is miraculously r e j u v e n a t e d, when the foster-child of 'the last two incredibly old snails' marries a fine young maiden-snail. In this manner Biedermeyer happily reproduces itself. But even when the pug dog in 'Heartache' dies, there is still room for merriment and festivity (the children dancing 'around the grave') - although the heartache of the ragged little girl (excluded from the celebration) rather strengthens t h e w o rk o f m o u r n i n g (!). And in 'The Goblin and the Grocer' the 'material bodily lower stratum' (Bakhtin) - exemplified by the porridge the goblin knows it has to stick to - once more illustrates the superiority of the (grotesque) body vis-à-vis the illustrious splendour of the Enlightenment Project (represented here by the poor student's book-lore ['From the book a clear shaft of light rose, expanding into a stem and an enormous tree which spread its branching rays above the student']). The split between body and spirit (Christian-Platonic dualism) is thus overcome -at least momentarily and at least in p r a c t i c a l terms; for '[o]ff to the grocer all of us go for the porridge' (!).
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Koldtoft, Lone;   Workshop V
Disharmony and temporal categories in Søren Kierkegaard and H. C. Andersen
The period of the golden age, what we in literary terms call romanticism, encompasses many different ideas, so making unambiguous claims about it is not easy. However, I believe that the romantic authors share a search for inward harmony. In other words, many of the authors in the golden age of Copenhagen, were concerned with the concept of the harmonious man. It is a theme, which we recognize both among the German and the Danish romantic writers.

In this paper, I will focus on two texts, where Søren Kierkegaard and H.C. Andersen from related negative perspectives explore the concept of the harmonious man. As text corpus, I have chosen Kierkegaard´s speech The Unhappiest One from Either-Or, written in 1843, and Andersen´s fairy tale The Fir Tree from 1844. Using these texts, I will investigate how the authors deal with the dualism inherent in the romantic view and the possibility of redemption. As we shall see, this idea of a harmonious or redeemed man is closely connected to temporal categories in both Kierkegaard and Andersen.
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Mikkelsen, Cynthia Mikaela; postgraduate   Workshop V
The element of fear in H.C. Andersen's fairytales
Mmany discussions have been made regarding the nature and elements of fairytales but, most scientists avoid getting into detailed analysis of their psychological aspects.

Vladimir Propp is regarded the pioneer in the scientific field of fairytales’ morphology and he has marked that, one of the most frequent elements of fairytales and folktales in general, is evil and the fear it provokes to the heroes.

My essay derives from my personal belief that H.C. Andersen’s fairytales are different from most others since one can read not only Freudian symbolism into them but also Melanie Klein’s and Julia Kristeva’s theories apart from the very popular Jungian approach that most scientists refer to.

In these fairytales magic or specified fear by the figure of a monster or a witch -in the means that we find it in other fairytales- does not exist since the evil is very real and seems to refer directly to ones everyday angst. Themes such as poverty, social exclusion, racism dominate the plot and wicked people seem to be only the excuse for a more psychological, interior battle.

Therefore, I attempt to approach the following 6 fairytales: The Wild Swans, The Little Match Girl, The Snow Queen, The Ugly Duckling, The Steadfast Tin Soldier and the Little Mermaid, using Freud’s, Klein’s and Kristeva’s theories in order to identify the heroes’ fear, angst and its source. My aim is to discuss fear thoroughly (which is the object of the fear?) and propose my own “interpretation” based on the above theories or even make an attempt to deconstruct them.
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Petzoldt, Leander; Prof. Dr.   Workshop V
The Soul of Things. Literary Forms and Popular Motifs in the Tales of H.C. Andersen.
Andersens first attempt to create fairy tales oriented itself at popular fairy tales, which he had heard in his childhood. Of course he removed ever more from these models and developed its own style of the literary fairy tale (Kunstmärchen). In contrast to the popular fairy tale its 'dramatis personae' are not types but they are individualized. Things are inspired, liveless objects win language, but not from a magic world view, for the 'marvelous' is displaced increasingly, as it was founded in the time mode of romantic philosophy, by a realistic representation: 'From the reality arises the most beautiful fairy tale'. The loans with the poets of the Romanticism (Musäus, Hoffmann, Heine, Chamisso, Fouqué, Novalis, Tieck, Eichendorf) are to be determined also numerously. He mixes the dimensions of the civil society with the world of the fantastic and reaches into strange cultures, from which reality he integrates it in a kind of 'Binnenexotik' in his fairy tales.
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Slavova, Margarita; Dr   Workshop V
'See saa! nu begynde vi.' [Now then! We will begin.]: Communicative Strategies in Andersen's Fairy-Tales
Focused to the poetics of Andersen's fairy-tales, the paper emphasizes on their communicative strategies. Andersen actualizes the remembrance of the orality of the genre in its own 'memory'. That is why the act of storytelling - self-reflective for the literary fairy-tale - is often present in Andersen's works as narrative strategy with communicative effect. The author's intention is to create an impression of oral and vis-à-vis communication, and to evoke such 'trust' in the tale, only present in the folk type if narration. In this way Andersen utilizes the narrative form as the articulative form of collective experience and wisdom, by introducing the act of storytelling /and respectively listening/ of fairy-tales /stories/ without changing its 'initiational' function.
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