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From the chapter "Aktuel H.C. Andersen-forskningssituation i en række repræsenterede lande" (Current Hans Christian Andersen research in a range of the represented countries), Andersen and the World, Odense 1993 (further information at the bottom of the page).

On the Study of Andersen in China

The study of H. C. Andersen's authorship in China is generally concentrated on his fairy tales, and one of its characteristics is that Chinese scholars combine their research with Chinese creation of fairy tales from the beginning until now. In other words, the purpose of study is to stimulate the creation of Chinese fairy tales.

The history of this study may be roughly divided into three periods as follows:

1) The first period 1911-35

In the early 20th century, with the influence of Western civilization, H. C. Andersen's fairy tales also spread to China. At first, they circulated just amongst a few scholars who had a sound foundation both in ancient Chinese culture and in Western literature, and some Chinese scholars had found the distance between Chinese and occidental creations of fairy tales. For example, after careful study of ancient Chinese fairy tales and Western modern ones, professor Zhou Zuoren published his research articles named "Brief Note of Fairy Tales", "Research on Fairy Tales", and "Danish Poet Andersen's Biography" in 1912. In these articles, he proposed that Chinese writers should write "man-made" fairy tales as Andersen did, and should pay attention to the psychology of children, the principal readers of fairy tales. Because at that time, the newly-written Chinese fairy tales were rather few, and most of them were rewritten from ancient Chinese folk stories and Western fairy tales, and there was also lack of artistic interest in fairy tales. He wrote an essay named "After Reading the First Selection of Andersen's Fairy Tales 'Nine out of the Ten'", in which he criticized the primitive translation of this selection, and introduced the true content of the original tales. So, Professor Zhou Zuoren is the first person who made the Chinese reader recognize Andersen more clearly.

As far as we know, in this period, there were some 23 articles related to Andersen and his fairy tales (see list A). Here we should mention Zhou Zuoren and Zhao Jingshen's "On the Discussion of Fairy Tales - Andersen and Wilde". From the view of comparative literature, they went into the similarities and differences between Andersen's and Wilde's fairy tales, and we should also mention Zhao Jingshen's "Introduction and Comments on Andersen's Biography and Works", "The World Outlook of Andersen", "The Ideas of Andersen's Fairy Tales", etc.

Generally speaking, during this period, Chinese literary criticism was influenced by the Western realistic trend in the 19th century. To a certain extent, Chinese scholars' discussion of Andersen and his fairy tales was also influenced by the Danish critic Georg Brandes. Realism and humanitarianism were the basic principles of aesthetics used by Chinese scholars.

2) The second period: the 1950s

In 1955, on the 150th anniversary of Andersen's birth, more than 50 commentaries were published in more than 20 newspapers and periodicals, introducing and discussing Andersen and his works (see list B). At that time, due to the serious tendency of formulization, conceptualization and attempts at making real life correspond to political stereotypes, Chinese writers of fairy tales such as the famous writers and translators Ye Junjian, Chen Bochui etc., wrote short essays - calling on writers of the younger generation to study Andersen's fairy tales and his method of creative working, to avoid their own bias and ignorance, and to return to the truly realistic way of creation. For instance, in his essay named "Andersen's Creation of Fairy Tales", Ye Junjian said, "Andersen's creation is not preaching. Every creation itself is a complete work of art. He never casually uses personification for a table or a chair, and never randomly lets them speak and act as human beings in order to reflect reality and disseminate his idea. Because this kind of personification cannot reflect the reality, sometimes, it even goes against the truth and is not reasonable. As a result, the readers feel that such works are not only devoid of interest, but also ridiculous."

During this period, Chinese scholars paid attention to the artistic logic of fairy tales; but when they were to analyze the content of Andersen's fairy tales, they just used the method of Marxist class analysis.

3) The third period: 1976 up till now

After the disastrous so-called Great Cultural Revolution, many middle-aged and old authors like Zhan Tinayi, Yan Wengjing, Hong Xuntao, Sun Youjun whose writing was interrupted for many years, resumed their creation again; at the same time, a number of young writers also appeared in the realm of fairy tale writing, such as Zhen Yanjie, Zhu Rui etc.; besides, a group of little fairy tale writers crops up from the recent nation-wide competitions of Chinese composition for primary and middle school pupils. At this time, Chinese fairy tale writers were longing to upgrade the artistry of their works in the process of coming back to life, casting off the political yoke and giving up the way of pouring tiresome exhortations into their readers' ear.

In 1979, Mao Dun, president of the China Federation of Literary and Art Circle, appealed to the union of Chinese writers at its 4th National Conference, "We must emphasize the artistry. We must give life to our works. We should at least study Andersen's works, grasping their essence, changing them into our own flesh and blood, even if we cannot come up to his level."

Since 1979, we have had many conferences on literature for young people and children in China, and nearly at every such conference, we have heard theorists, critics and authors mentioning the deep implication, the poetic beauty and the reasonable choice of fairy tale logic in Andersen's works, pointing to the weak points in our literary creation. And they take the artistic level set up by Andersen as the goal which we should pursue and surpass. That is to say, "Let the children like the story itself, at the same time the adults can get the deeper meaning from it."

Thus, the reason why Andersen is Andersen, why his fairy tales can transcend the limits of space and time with eternal charm becomes the central research subject for our Chinese colleagues who wish that their fairy tales should attain international quality.

During this period, research on Andersen and his fairy tales in China was mainly concentrated in two fields: in one of them, interpretations of Andersen's single fairy tale are to meet the need of teaching felt by primary and middle-school teachers, approximately 31 commentaries belonging to this category (see list C); in the other field, the research has always been centred on the general background and subject which I have mentioned above, approximately 83 articles have been published (see list D). In these articles, various answers have been given to this subject from different angles. For example, in Liu Banqiu's "Why Has Andersen Become Andersen", he based his interpretation on the relationship between Andersen and the Danish nation; professor Pu Manding analysed the factor of Andersen's personality which made Andersen a success from the point of view of psychology in her The Brief Comments on H. C. Andersen; in Lu Liangbi's "On Andersen's Artistic Achievements", he accounted for the uniqueness in the themes and design of image and wording of Andersen's fairy tales; in my "On the Beauty of Fairy Tale", I investigated the reason why Andersen's and other eminent authors' fairy tales are immortal from the point of view of aesthetics and children's psychology. I would also like to mention Wei Wei's and Hong Zuntao's research and introduction on Andersen and his fairy tales in their books named The History of World Children's Literature and On Fairy Tale, and recently, a special periodical of the research on Andersen's fairy tales has been published in Taiwan. In this periodical, I should mention Feng Jun's "Andersen's 'The Emperor's New Clothes' and Ye Shentao's 'The Emperor's New Clothes'". In his essay, Feng Jun analysed the reason why Andersen's fairy tale could be accepted in many countries and why the Chinese author Ye Shentao's tale could not surpass the national boundaries on the basis of these two writers' different views of art.

Looking back on the research on Andersen in China from the beginning of the 20th century until now, I think there are a few tendencies that deserve noticing: 1) People kept writing introductions to Andersen's stories and giving their own spontaneous, impressionistic reaction to them. 2) There is quite an amount of repetition. 3) The methods of criticism used by Chinese scholars were rather too monotonous. Rereading the research articles of Chinese scholars in the first period, we find that progress over half a century is really very small. But we Chinese scholars are studying the fairy tales as a whole, instead of studying the authors one by one.

Today, our main interest of research on Andersen's works is still focused on his fairy tales, especially on some of the fairy tales which are both accepted by adults and children.

The Chinese fairy tale authors whom I know nearly all have the same experience: it is not difficult to write a fairy tale either for adults or for children, but it is really not easy to create a fairy tale accepted both by children and adults. It seems that Andersen had a kind of magic weapon. Therefore, we think Andersen had actually set up a very high artistic level in his fairy tales such as "The Ugly Duckling", "The Snow Queen", "The Little Mermaid", etc.

In these tales, the world of adults and the world of children become a harmonious whole. The nature of adults and the nature of children are in perfect harmony. It is a wonderful realm of fairy tales.

What is the relation between the innermost nature of adults and that of children in Andersen's fairy tales? How has he unified them harmoniously? How has he depicted his personal experience by using the children's point of view and used the means of expression which children can accept? We are very much interested in the structure of the artistic form of Andersen's fairy tales. There is no doubt we will find the key!

Appendices

List A: 1911-35

"Brief Note of Fairy Tales" and "Research on Fairy Tales", by Zhou Zuoren, published in Minxing Daily, June 6th and 7th, 1912, and in Monthly Magazine on the Editorial Department of the Ministry of Education, 1913.

"Biography of Danish Poet H. C. Andersen", by Zhou Zuoren, published in the first issue of Series of Zhuoshe in the special column "History and Biography", December, 1913.

"Novel of Gods and Spirits" and "The Author of the Novel of Gods and Spirits and His Works", by Sun Yuxiu, published in Introduction and Comments on the Series of European and American Books by China Commercial Publishing House, December, 1916.

"Brief Biography of H. C. Andersen", by Zhou Soujuan, published in Series of Famous European and American Short Stories by China Book Administration, March, 1917.

"Read Andersen's Fairy Tales Selected" in "Nine out of the Ten", by Zhou Zuoren, published in the 3rd issue of the 5th vol. of New Youth, September 15th, 1918.

"On the Discussion of Fairy Tales", 4th issue: "Andersen and Wilde", by Zhou Zuoren and Zhao Jingshen, published in Supplement of Morning Post, April 9th, 1922.

"Introduction and Comments on Andersen's Biography and Works", by Zhao Jingshen, published in the literary magazine Microwave, March 1st, 1922.

"Preface of 'Picture Book without Pictures'", by Zhao Jingshen, published in the 4th issue of supplement "Rosy Dawn" of the paper New People's Ideas, April 8th, 1923.

"Modern Danish Literature", by Shen Zhemin, published in the 18th issue of the 14th vol. of Novel Monthly, August, 1923.

"The World Outlook of Andersen" and "Introduction and Comments on Andersen's Biography and Works", by Zhao Jinsheng, published in Selection of Andersen's Fairy Tales by New Culture Book Store, June, 1924.

"The Biography of Andersen", by Gu Zhen Junzhen, "Andersen's Works and Reference Books about Andersen", by Xi Di [Zheng Zhendou], and "The Anecdote about Andersen", by Zhao Jinsheng, published in the 8th issue of the 16th vol. of Novel Monthly, August, 1925.

"Research on Andersen", by Jiang Gongwei, "Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Mu Zhendan, and "H. C. Andersen", by Zhao Jinsheng, published in Jingbao [Beijing Daily], August 29th, 1925.

"The Chronicle of Andersen's Life", by Gu Junzhen and Xu Tiaofu, published in the 9th issue of the 16th vol. of Novel Monthly, September, 1925.

"The Ideas of Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Zhao Jinsheng, published in the Selection of Fairy Tales by Kaiming Book Store, September, 1927.

"Andersen and Chehov", by Zhao Jinsheng, published in the 6th vol. of Literary Week, July, 1928.

"The Fairy Tale of Andersen's Life", by Gu Junzhen, published in Middle School Student, 7th issue, August, 1930.

"Danish Fairy Tale Writer Andersen", by Di Fu [Mao Dun], and "The Present and the Past of Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Zhong Chi, published in the 1st issue of the 4th vol. of Literature, January, 1935.

List B: 1950s

"From the Discussion of Andersen's 'The Shadow'", by Sang Yi, published in Liberation Daily, August 1st, 1954.

"The Outstanding Fairy Tale Writer Andersen", published in Da Gong Bao [Grand Public Paper], December 11th, 1954.

"The Outstanding Writer Andersen", by Xie Ting Yu, published in Series of Literary Books, 3rd issue, 1955.

"Andersen's Creation of Fairy Tales - in Memory of the 150th Anniversary of Andersen's Birth", by Ye Junjian, published in Literary and Art Paper, 3rd issue, 1955.

"Andersen and his Fairy Tales", by Lin He, published in Da Gong Bao [Grand Public Paper], 3rd issue, 1955.

"Andersen's Hometown", by Ye Junjian, published in Traveller, 3rd issue, 1955.

"Great Fairy Tale Writer Andersen - In Memory of the 150th Anniversary of Andersen's Birth", by Chen Bochui, published in magazine Middle School Student, 3rd issue, 1955.

"Andersen and His Works", by Ye Junjian, published in People's Literature, 4th issue, 1955.

"On Andersen's Fairy Tale 'The Little Match Girl'", by Ye Junjian, published in Study of Literature and Art, 1955.

"The Translator's Preface for the Selection of Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Ye Junjian, published by People's Literature Publishing House, 1955.

"Andersen", published in New Observation, 4th issue, 1955.

"In Memory of the 150th Anniversary of Andersen's Birth", published in International Perspect, 4th issue, 1955.

"Discussion about Andersen and His Fairy Tales", by Yang Yong, published in Wuhan Education, 4th issue, 1955.

"Andersen - the Great Master of Fairy Tales", by Chen Bochui, published in P. L. A.'s Literature and Art, 4th issue, 1955.

"The Idea of Creation of Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Chen Bochui, published in Study of Literature and Art, 4th issue, 1955.

"In Memory of World Famous Cultural Persons Including Andersen", by Feng Zhi, published in New Observation, 5th issue, 1955.

"In Memory of the Great Representative of the World Famous Cultural Persons - Andersen", by Yang Xianyi, published in magazine World Knowledge, 5th issue, 1955.

"Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Ye Junjian, published in Literary and Art Paper, 6th issue, 1955.

"Read 'Mother's Story'", by Shu Zhang, published in South-West Literature, 7th issue, 1955.

"A Visit to Andersen's Hometown", by Fang Dong, published in magazine World Knowledge, 8th issue, 1955.

"Recall Andersen's Hometown", by Tian Hua, published in Beijing Daily, April 2nd, 1955.

"What Shall We Learn from Andersen?", by Chen Bochui, published in People's Daily, April 2nd, 1955.

"The Evaluation of the Artistry of Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Chen Bochui, published in Da Gong Bao [Grand Public Paper], April 2nd, 1955.

"Andersen and His Fairy Tales - In Memory of the 150th Anniversary of the Birth of Danish Writer Andersen", by Ye Junjian, published in Chang Jiang Daily, April 3rd, 1955.

"Andersen and His Fairy Tales - In Memory of the 150th Anniversary of the Birth of Danish Writer Andersen", by Gan He, published in Da Gong Bao [Grand Public Paper], April 3rd, 1955.

"In Memory of the 150th Anniversary of Andersen's Birth", by Chen Bochui, published in Beijing Daily, April 3rd, 1955.

"Great Fairy Tale Writer Andersen", by Chen Bochui, published in Chinese Youth Daily, April 3rd, 1955.

"Andersen's Creation of Fairy Tales - In Memory of the 150th Anniversary of Andersen's Birth", by Ye Junjian, published in Liberation Daily, May 3rd, 1955.

"Andersen and His Fairy Tales", by Zhu Dan, published in Guang Ming Daily, May 3rd, 1955.

"Andersen's Way of Creation", by Gu Souchang, published in Nan Fang Daily [South China Daily], May 8th, 1955.

"Introduction of the Fairy Tale 'The Little Match Girl', by Andersen - One of the Four World Famous Cultural Persons", published in Rehe Literature and Art, 10th issue, May 25th, 1955.

"Materials for the Lectures of In Memory of the 150th Anniversary of the Birth of the World Famous Cultural Person Andersen", edited by Hubei Library, May, 1955.

"Andersen and His Fairy Tales", by Shi Hanxiao, published in Introduction to the Literary Books and Magazines, May, 1955.

"Andersen and His Fairy Tales", by Zhao Jingshen, published in Shanghai Xinmin Evening Paper, June 17th, 1955.

"A Visit to Andersen's House", by Li Xifan, published in Literature and Art Monthly, November, 1955.

Fairy Tale Writer Andersen, by Ye Junjian, published by Shanghai Children's Publishing House, November, 1955.

"Andersen and His Fairy Tale", by Sheng Changrong, published in The Study of Nanjing University, 4th issue, 1956.

"Andersen and His 'Little Match Girl'", by Dong Xinnan, published in Study in Chinese, 1st issue, 1957.

"Little Match Girl", edited by Zhengzhou Teaching Materials Editing and Writing Group, published in Teaching of Chinese Language, 2nd issue, 1957.

"New Discovery of Andersen's Diary", published in Translation Articles, 3rd issue, 1957.

"The Emperor's New Clothes", by Yang Xianyi, published in People's Daily, March 13th, 1957.

"Andersen's House", by Chen Dayuan, published in People's Daily, April 9th, 1957.

"Andersen's 'Little Match Girl'", by Song Chengzhi, published in Teaching of Chinese Language, 2nd issue, 1958.

"Preface of the Selection of Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Ye Junjian, published by People's Literature Publishing House, 1959.

"Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Ye Junjian, published in Literary Knowledge, June, 1959.

"In Memory of Andersen's 155th Birthday, 2nd April 1960", reference materials published in Work of Library, March, 1960.

"Andersen and His Fairy Tales", by Xin Zhu, published in Luo Yang Daily, June 3rd, 1960.

"A Writer Who Wrote for Children in His Whole Life", by Zhang Laibin, published in Xian Evening Paper, June 1st, 1962.

"Son of A Shoemaker", by Ye Junjian, published in New Students by Writers Publishing House, 1962.

List C

"The Little Match Girl", published in Analysis to the Chinese Teaching Materials, July, 1973.

"H. C. Andersen and His 'Little Match Girl'", by Zhao Zhiquan, published in Study on Chinese Teaching, 1st issue, 1978.

"Comment on 'The Little Match Girl'", by Qing Tong, published in Research on Teaching by Jining Teachers' Training School, 1st issue, 1978.

"Andersen and His Fairy Tale 'The Little Match Girl'", by Yan Juhan, published in Study on Chinese Teaching by Jiangxi Teachers' College, 1st issue, 1978.

"The Little Match Girl", published in Reference Materials of Chinese Teaching in Hubei Middle Schools by Wuhan Teachers' College in Advanced Studies.

"The Analysis of 'The Little Match Girl'", published in Selection of the Analysis of Foreign Poems and Articles by Anhui University, Fuyang Branch, 1979.

"The Explanation to 'The Little Match Girl'", published in Selection of the Explains of Foreign Literary Works by Henggang Teachers' Training School, 1979.

"Comments on the Artistic Structure of 'The Little March Girl'", by Hu Shanlin, published in Dispatches on Teaching by Correspondence by the Department of Teaching by Correspondence of Henan University.

"Two Beautiful Fairy Tales - Andersen's 'The Emperor's New Clothes' and 'The Little Match Girl'", by Ma Jiajun, published in Selection of the Explains of Foreign Literary Works by Shannxi People's Publishing House, March, 1980.

"'The Ugly Duckling' is the Most Beautiful", by Gan Dunmao, published in Journal of Yulin Teachers' Training School, March, 1980.

"Andersen and His 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Shen Yuetong and Shi Zaihua, published in Teaching Information from Middle Schools by Quzhou Teachers' School in Zhejiang Province, 4th issue, 1980.

"Can't Catch the Sight of 'New Clothes' But Can See the Ugly and Evil", by Qian Wei and Wu Zhuliu, published in Teaching and Research, 4th issue, 1980.

"A Plain Analysis of 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Fu Jianming and Xu Weiwei, published in Teaching Information, 4th issue, 1980.

"The Characteristic of Fantasy of 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Du Yuxiang and Yan Zheng, published in Dispatches on Teaching by Correspondence of Henan Teachers' University, 5th issue, 1980.

"Comments on the Artistic Satire of 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Jiang Hanlin, published in Guidance to the Teaching by Correspondence by the Teachers' Training School of Zhaowuda Prefecture in Inner Mongolia, 5th issue, 1980.

"Harmonious Parables and Profound Meanings - Explains to the Questions About 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Hu Kegang, published in Dispatches on Teaching by Correspondence of Henan Teachers' University, 6th issue, 1980.

"The Artistic Characteristic of 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Li Jing, published in Chinese Teaching by Correspondence by the Department of Teaching by Correspondence of Inner Mongolian Teachers' College, 6th issue, 1980.

"Excellent Satire and Exquisite Art - A Simple Analysis to 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Zhu Yang, Chen Xunchu and Huang Jianhong, published in Information about Chinese Teaching in the Middle Schools by Shanxi Teachers' University, 7th issue, 1980.

"Andersen's 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Lu Huifang, published in Teaching and Research by Zhejiang Teachers' College, 7th issue, 1980.

"Andersen and his 'Emperor's New Clothes'", by Zhang Guangchang, published in Chinese Teaching Field, 7th issue, 1980.

"The Artistic Characteristic of 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Kang Lin, published in Dispatches on Chinese Teaching by Shanxi Teachers' College, 10th issue, 1980.

"Andersen's Fairy Tales", published in the 2nd vol. of Foreign Literature (pp. 129-43) - the teaching materials for the Teaching by Correspondence, October, 1980.

"Write the Fairy Tales with Childishness - Read Andersen's 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Wang Quihong, published in Chinese Studies, 11th issue, 1980.

"The Unusual Corner - an Analysis on the Environmental Description of 'The Little Match Girl'", published in Journal of Chende Teachers' Training School, 1st issue, 1981.

"Brief Comment on the Satirical Technique of 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Hong Liu, published in Chinese Teaching, 11th issue, 1981.

"Andersen and His Fairy Tales", by Zhang Guangchang, published in Chinese Teaching, 12th issue, 1981.

"A Plain Analysis to 'The Little Match Girl'", by E Yang Lang, published in Chinese Teaching for the Primary and Middle Schools by Qinghai Teachers' College, 1st issue, 1982.

"A Deep-going and Vivid Fairy Tale - Read Andersen's 'The Little Match Girl'", published in Chinese Field, 3rd issue, 1982.

"The Revise and the Sequel of 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Zhang Guangchang, published in Chinese Field, 4th issue, 1982.

"Count Lukanov and 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Zhang Guangchang, published in Chinese Teaching, 11th issue, 1982.

"The Philosophic Theory Implied in Satire - Read 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Deng Hua, published in Friends of Chinese Teaching, 2nd issue, 1983.

"'The Nightingale' - the Fascination of Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Liu Yuhua, published in Study after Class, January 30th, 1985.

List D

"Andersen's Creation of Fairy Tales", by Ye Junjian, published in Children's Literature, 4th issue, 1978.

"Andersen and His Fairy Tale 'The Gardener and His Master'", by Yi Xin, published in Literature and Art of Wugang [Wugang means Wuhan Iron and Steel Complex], 4th issue, 1978.

"The Postscript of the Translation of the Complete Fairy Tales of H. C. Andersen (168 Fairy Tales in 16 Volumes)", by Ye Junjian, published by Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1978 edition.

"The Translator's Preface to the Selection of Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Ye Junjian, published by the People's Literature Publishing House, August 1978 edition.

"To Win over the Next Generation - Andersen and His Fairy Tales", by Yu Youxian, published in Literature and Art of Henan, 6th issue, 1978.

"Andersen and His 'Little Match Girl'", by He Yi, published in Research on Children's Literature, 1st issue, 1978.

"Andersen's 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Wu Yan, published in Wen Hui Bao, January 13th, 1979.

"Andersen's Fairy Tales", published in Foreign Literature, edited by 19 colleagues, January, 1979.

"H. C. Andersen", published in Biography of Famous Foreign Writers (vol. 1, pp. 43-47) by China Social Science Press, February 1979 edition.

"The Translator's Preface of the Selection of Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Ye Junjian, published by the People's Literature Publishing House, 1979 edition.

"Comments on 'Andersen's Fairy Tales and Stories'", by Ma Jiajun, published in Chinese Study, 2nd issue, 1979.

"The Tremendous Conviction of the Realistic Fairy Tales - Review of Andersen's Fairy Tale 'The Little Match Girl'", by Jin Hai, published in Translation, 2nd issue, 1979.

"Beautiful Reverie and Mellow Poetic Flavor - Comment on Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Ma Jiajun, published in Selection of Comments on World Famous Works by Jiangxi People's Publishing House, vol. 2, 1979.

"The Treasure of Children's Literature - Introduction to Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Ma Jiajun, published in Shanxi Daily, 4th March, 1979.

"The Inspiration Given by Andersen", by Zhu Dalu, published in Wen Hui Bao, March 22nd, 1979.

"Children's Warm-hearted Friend - Read Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Wen Zhuying, published in Literature and Art of Fujian, 6th issue, 1979.

"After Andersen's 'The Wild Swans' Presented to the Puppet Stage", by Wu Xuan, published in Beijing Daily, May 24th, 1979.

"The Great Fairy Tale Writer - Andersen", by Yan Lin, published in Guangxi Daily, May 27th, 1979.

"Seeing the Big Through the Small, Rich Content Within a Small Compass", by He Shuheng, published in Literature and Art of Zhengzhou, 6th issue, 1979.

"The Charm of Fantasy - Read Andersen's 'Emperor's New Clothes'", by Chen Qing, published in Literature and Art of Guangzhou, 6th issue, 1979.

"The Words Brought by the Deep Feelings and the Meaning Implied With Literary Talent - Read Andersen's Fairy Tale 'The Little Match Girl'", by Shang Song, published in Literature and Art of Guangxi, 6th issue, 1979.

"Read Andersen's 'Emperor's New Clothes'", by Li Yang, published in Literature and Art of Harbin, 6th issue, 1979.

"The Commendable Spirit of H. C. Andersen", by Cui Yi, published in Jilin Daily, July 29th, 1979.

"The Stirring Artistic Appeal - Comments on the Artistic Characteristic of 'The Little Match Girl'", by Jing Weiming, published in Rain-Flower, 8th issue, 1979.

"Andersen in the Picture", by Mao Fenghua, published in the Literature and Art of Zhengzhou, 6th issue, 1979.

"Andersen's Fairy Tales in China", by Mu Lu, published in Guangming Daily, September 14th, 1979.

"Andersen and His 'Ugly Duckling'", by Jing Jin, published in People's Daily, September 15th, 1979.

"Andersen and His Fairy Tales", by You Jin, published in Xi'an Daily, September 16th, 1979.

"Towards Perpetuity", by Ye Junjian, published in Guangming Daily, September 23rd, 1979.

"Andersen's Visit to China - An Introduction to the 'Exhibition on Andersen's Biography and Works'", by Chen Dayuan, published in Beijing Daily, September 17th, 1979.

"The Artistic Achievements of Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Jing Jin, published in Comments on Foreign Literature, vol. 1, by Foreign Literature Press, 1979 edition.

"Andersen's Fairy Tales in China", by Jing Jin, published in World Knowledge, 18th issue, 1979.

"The Soaring of 'The Ugly Duckling'", by Liu Siqian, published in Henan Daily, October 25th, 1979.

"Andersen and China", by Zhu Jinzhi, published in Wen Hui Bao, December 5th, 1979.

"The Commendable Spirit of Exploring and Blazing New Trails", by Lu Liangbi, published in Fujiang Daily, December 9th, 1979.

"Immortal Masterpiece - Comments on the 'Exhibition on Andersen's Biography and Works'", by Weng Yiqian, published in Wen Hui Bao, January 22nd, 1980.

"Why Has Andersen Become Andersen", by Liu Banqiu, published in Reading Books, 1st issue, 1980.

"Talk about Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Wang Wenyue, published in Journal of Shenyang Teachers' College, 1st issue, 1980.

"The Spring Breeze Swaying from Copenhagen - Andersen and His Fairy Tales", by Chen Bochui, published in Battle Field, 4th issue, 1980.

"Andersen's Fairy Tales - Brief Introduction to The Famous Chinese and Foreign Works", published by Jilin People's Publishing House, May 1980 edition.

"The Honoured People Marching on the Thorn-Bushes Road", by Bao Dong, published in Research on Children's Literature, vol. 5, 1980.

"To Win over the Next Generation - Talk about Andersen and His Fairy Tales", by Gao Shuyu, published in Ningxia Daily, June 7th, 1980.

"A Fairy Tale Comes from the Real Life - Comment on 'The Ugly Duckling'", by Wang Peiqing, published in Literature and Art of Ganshu, 9th issue, 1980.

"Never Withered Artistic Flower - Comment on Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Li Jia, published in Literature and Art of Harbin, 10th issue, 1980.

"Andersen's Childhood", by Zhu Jinzhi, published in Beijing Daily, October 22nd, 1980.

"Andersen's Love Tragedy", by Yang Rupeng, published in Out of Eight Working Hours, 1st issue, 1981.

"Love and Fairy Tales", by Zheng Zuo, published inWen Hui Monthly, January, 1981.

"The Artistry of Andersen's Fairy Tales", by Wang Quangen, published in Journal of South-West Teachers' College, 1st issue, 1981.

"Andersen Lightens Children's Intelligence", by Zhong Zhong, published in Yang Chen Evening Paper, January 22nd, 1981.

"Andersen and Drama", by Ma Changyi, published in Theatrical Circles, 6th issue, June, 1981.

"H. C. Andersen", by Li Yingjin, published in Literary Juvenile, 1982.

"Exaggeration, Repeating and Action - The Artistry of 'The Emperor's New Clothes'", by Wang Quangen, published in Chinese Field, 2nd issue, 1982.

"On Andersen's Artistic Achievements", by Lu Liangbi, published in Journal of Fujian Teachers' University, 3rd issue, 1982.

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Bibliographic information about the text:

La, Xiao: "On the Study of Andersen in China", pp. 494-505 i Johan de Mylius, Aage Jørgensen & Viggo Hjørnager Pedersen (red.): Andersen og Verden. Indlæg fra den første internationale H. C. Andersen-konference, 25.-31. august 1991. Udgivet af H. C. Andersen-Centret, Odense Universitet. Odense Universitetsforlag, Odense 1993.

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